about solar

Needs of Solar

Why Solar?

It’s been over a decade since solar power started sweeping the world and there is no slowing down. Paris Declaration on the International Solar Alliance of 30th November 2015 is the biggest proof. The launch of the International Solar Alliance (ISA) was announced by H.E. Mr. Narendra Modi, the Hon’ble Prime Minister of India and H.E. Mr. Francois Hollande, former Hon’ble President of France on 30th November 2015, at the 21st session of United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP-21) in Paris, France. Former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon attended the launch, alongside the Heads of about 120 nations who affirmed their participation in the Alliance to dedicate efforts for promotion of solar energy. Solar power has only been getting more efficient to use and cheaper to acquire, which is great news for its economic viability.

There is a lot more to solar. Some of the reasons are:

  • Solar Energy helps the environment by reducing Carbon footprint.
  • Solar Energy provides significant savings over time.
  • Solar Energy increase the value of property as the property becomes an energy power house in itself.
  • Solar panels are safe and reliable as most of the Solar Panels typically come with a 25 to 30-year linear performance warranty. This guarantees the panel production capability will not drop below a specified degradation percentage.
  • Solar energy is the future. It is evident from the Government long term incentives. When Apple, Amazon, Airports, Railway stations, Bus stations are getting upgraded to solar, it is clear that solar sustainability is the future.

Working Process

How Solar works

Solar power is energy from the sun that is converted into thermal or electrical energy. Solar energy is the cleanest and most abundant renewable energy source available and India is one of the richest solar resources in the world. Solar technologies can harness this energy for a variety of uses, including generating electricity, providing light or a comfortable interior environment, and heating water for domestic, commercial, or industrial use.

There are three main ways to harness solar energy: photovoltaics, solar heating & cooling, and concentrating solar power. Photovoltaics generate electricity directly from sunlight via an electronic process and can be used to power anything from small electronics such as calculators and road signs up to homes and large commercial businesses.

Solar heating & cooling (SHC) and concentrating solar power (CSP) applications both use the heat generated by the sun to provide space or water heating in the case of SHC systems, or to run traditional electricity-generating turbines in the case of CSP power plants.
Solar energy is a very flexible energy technology: it can be built as distributed generation (located at or near the point of use) or as a central-station, utility-scale solar power plant (similar to traditional power plants). Both of these methods can also store the energy they produce for distribution after the sun sets, using cutting edge solar and storage technologies.

Indian renewable energy sector is the fourth most attractive renewable energy market in the world. Installed renewable power generation capacity has gained pace over the past few years, posting a CAGR of 17.33% between FY16–20. With the increased support of Government and improved economics, the sector has become attractive from investors perspective. As India looks to meet its energy demand on its own, which is expected to reach 15,820 TWh by 2040, renewable energy is set to play an important role. The government is aiming to achieve 225 GW of renewable energy capacity (including 114 GW of solar capacity addition and 67 GW of wind power capacity) by 2022, more than its 175 GW targets as per the Paris Agreement. The government plans to establish renewable energy capacity of 500 GW by 2030.


Solar Cell Basics

A large majority of solar cells are made from silicon. In this section we will discuss only crystalline silicon cells (see the section in Solar In-depth for thin film types of cells). When silicon absorbs sunlight, the energy from the sun excites some of the cell’s electrons into a mobile state where they are free to move around the entire cell. However, in a piece of plain silicon there is no reason for them to go in one direction rather than another (electricity is the movement of electrons in one direction). However, in solar cells, there is a separator called a junction, where two slightly different types of silicon meet. The two types of silicon are pretty much the same, except each one is “doped” – has a tiny percentage of other materials mixed in. The two types of doping (called n-type and p-type) determine its electrical properties. When a random electron reaches the junction, it is accelerated across it (think about a waterfall … the water can only go one way – down). So this flow establishes an electron direction in the system. If a wire is attached to each side of the junction, and sunlight is absorbed by the silicon, the free electrons flow from one side of the junction to the other. This flow of electrons induces a similar flow through the external circuit. This is “electricity” — electrons flowing in a single direction through conductors. This particular flow is called a DC current.

Electricity can be thought of as the flow of electrons (current) through a copper wire under electrical pressure (voltage) and is analogous to the flow of water through a pipe. If we think of the copper wire in an electrical circuit as the pipe, then voltage is equivalent to the water pressure (pounds per square inch) and current is equivalent to the water flow rate (gallons per minute). Power is measured in watts and is the product of voltage multiplied by current. Electrical energy is power (watts) consumed over time and is expressed as kilowatt-hours (kwh). A kilowatt hour is 1000-watt hours. If a 100-watt light bulb is on for 10 hours, it uses 1 kilowatt-hour of power (100 watts times 10 hours = 1000-watt hours or 1 kilowatt-hour). The electric bill is expressed in terms of how many kilowatt-hours are used each month.


Types of Solar Panels

An individual silicon solar cell is quite small, typically about 6 inches square producing only about 1 or 2 watts of power. To boost the total power output from solar cells, they are connected together to form larger units called solar modules (panels). These modules are usually encased in glass or plastic to provide protection from the weather. Solar modules, in turn, can be connected to form larger units called solar arrays. These arrays can be interconnected to produce even more power. In this way, solar systems can be built to meet almost any electric power requirement, small or large. Reliability of solar arrays is an important factor in the cost of systems and in consumers accepting this technology. The solar cell itself is a “solid-state” device with no moving parts, and therefore, it is highly reliable and long-lived. The electricity produced by solar cells and solar modules is direct current (DC). Nearly all home appliances are alternating current (AC). Solar arrays are connected to an “inverter” which converts the DC current into AC. Inverters also synchronize the solar current and voltage to match that of the grid the solar system is attached to.

Monocrystalline Solar Panels (Mono-SI)
Highly efficient, durable, high aesthetic value
Most Expensive
Polycrystalline Solar Panels (p-Si)
Less Expensive, improving efficiencies
Slightly lower efficient, not as durable
Thin-Film: Amorphous Silicon Solar Panels (A-SI)
Low costs, easily produced
Shorter warranties and lifespans
Concentrated PV Cell (CVP)
High performance and efficiency rate
Needs solar tracker & cooling system

However, not all solar panels are the same. There are various types that are being installed, with various characteristics that are linked to them. To understand the world of solar panels better, here are 4 most common types of solar panels.

Quench Your Thirst


No, but the system may produce more power during the day than you will immediately use and the excess power produced can be stored in solar storage systems.

When you have a “grid feed” or “grid-tie” system, the extra inverter that allows electricity from the home to be exported to the grid, allowing any extra energy your system produces to be offloaded. The solar energy system will always prioritize your power needs. It will only offload any power it produces beyond what you use.

Even in partly cloudy weather, solar cells can still operate at 80% of their maximum output.

Solar energy is the most abundant and sustainable energy resource when compared all other types of energy resources put together.

Solar panel system uses photons to separate electrons from atoms. Photons are light particles. The process of separating electrons from their atoms creates solar electricity. Each solar panel contains photovoltaic (PV) cells. PV cells take light, or photons, and convert it to solar electricity. When sunlight hits the solar panel, PV cells produce direct current (DC) electricity. But DC electricity cannot power home on its own. Some solar panel system configurations have a single inverter (often called a string inverter) for the entire system. Some have a micro-inverter connected behind each solar panel. The most important thing to know about inverters is that they convert DC electricity from solar panels to alternating current (AC) electricity. This electricity is what powers the appliances.

Yes! The truth is that colder temperatures are actually better for solar panel output. Electricity flows better when the mercury drops.

Grid-tied – When tied to an electrical grid, the homeowner can get electricity from their solar energy system or utility grid. Off-Grid – it’s a solar energy system that is not connected to a utility grid.

Net metering is a billing agreement between customers like you and your utility company. It allows you to receive credits on your electricity bill when your solar panels produce excess electricity and sends that electricity to the power grid.

Most figures say that solar panels are roughly between 15% and 18% efficient, meaning that 15% to 18% of the sunlight they absorb is converted into electricity while the rest hits the solar panel and warms the surface like it would anything else.

The most suitable direction is to capture the maximum amount of sunlight overall. Solar panels should be tilted between a 30⁰ & 40⁰ degree angle.

A solar battery storage system is utilized to store excess energy of the solar panels.

The standard length and width for a solar panel for home tends to be 66 inches by 40 inches. They tend to weigh about 19 kg and have a frame thickness between 1.25 inches (32mm) and 1.6 inches (40mm). The standard cell count for a residential solar panel is 60 cells. A commercial solar panel tends to be about 77 inches by 39 inches. Most commercial solar panels weigh more than 23 kg.

A solar inverter is basically a low-level computer—installed alongside the other components of your solar energy system—that “inverts” your energy from direct current (DC) to alternating current (AC). Solar inverters also allow to connect the solar energy system to the internet, to access information about the system

90% of PV solar panels are made from two main types of solar cells, either monocrystalline or polycrystalline silicon. Silicon is a highly durable chemical element that converts the energy from the Sun into electricity.

  • Silicon panels are generally made out of a semiconductor-grade polysilicon. This polysilicon is usually a mix of processed quartz that is also used to make parts of electronics like microchips. This polysilicon is heated up until it reaches its melting temperature. From there, other chemical additives like boron are added to the polysilicon. This creates a P-type semiconductor material. A P-type semiconductor as a material that conducts electricity better than the average semiconductor but still not as well as a traditional metal conductor.
  • This molten polysilicon-boron mix is cooled down and forms what is known as an ingot or block of silicon.
  • This ingot is then cut into incredibly thin slices known as wafers. These slices are then etched and cleaned until they’re ready to move on to the next step.
  • These wafers are dipped in an N-type solution. An N-type material conducts electricity better than other semiconductors but not as well as pure metal conductors. When the N-type solution comes in contact with the P-type wafer, the two interact in such a way to help them better-still conduct electricity.
  • This dipped wafer is now covered in an anti-reflective coating. This helps prevent sunlight from bouncing off the panels and escaping your solar energy system. Lastly, each solar cell is tested and attached to a panel according to its size and strength.

Solar panels, Mounting arrangement, Inverter, Battery etc.

Solar panels, Mounting arrangement, Inverter, Battery etc.

Please contact us to evaluate the energy requirement based on the requirement and packages.

A solar home battery is a rechargeable battery, that stores power from your solar energy system. The most common home batteries have capacities around 10kWh so (depending on your specific configurations) this allows enough stored energy to power up to four circuits in your home, the most common of which are your fridge, kitchen, bathroom, and heater.

This is the number indicating the percentage of solar energy that a particular solar panel can convert into usable electricity. Efficiency ratings can generally vary from 15 to 18 percent.

Most of the solar panels come with 25-year warranty. So, these are long lasting investment.

String inverters or micro inverters indicate working or error as the case may be.

Solar panels can be cleaned with water and hose. Many mechanical methods have also come in like Solar Cleaning Robots for fixed tilt installations and Single axis trackers. Robotic cleaning solutions are used in large solar parks. These clean around 1000 solar panels in 4 hours.

This is rare because solar panels themselves are extremely durable. Chances are slim that the panels themselves will cause any problems but it is not impossible.

In 1839, French physicist Edmond Becquerel discovered the photovoltaic effect while experimenting with a cell made of metal electrodes in a conducting solution. He noted that the cell produced more electricity when it was exposed to light. Later in 1873, Willoughby Smith discovered that selenium could function as a photoconductor. Just three years later, in 1876 William Grylls Adams and Richard Evans Day applied the photovoltaic principle discovered by Becquerel to selenium. They recorded that it could, in fact, generate electricity when exposed to light. Almost 50 years after the photovoltaic effect’s discovery, in 1883, American inventor Charles Fritz created the first working selenium solar cell. Though we use silicon in cells for modern solar panels, this solar cell was a major precursor to the technology used today.

Solar electricity powered offices, bus stations, trains stations. Solar plane, solar ship, solar car and even solar train. We have all of them catching up very fast along with EV Hybrid technology.


Government Subsidy

The subsidy is only available on Residential Homes (Individual Homes & Big Apartments), not commercial and industrial sectors. A solar subsidy is only available on Grid Connected Solar System (Without Battery System). As installing a solar system is a huge investment, the financial assistance motivates people to invest and takes some burden off their shoulders.

  • Subsidy Amount – Up to 3kW – 40% Subsidy
  • 4kW to 10kW – 20% Subsidy &
  • More than 10kW – No any subsidy

Solar Panel Subsidy in Uttar Pradesh, 2020 Uttar Pradesh state is looking to set up solar parks in different parts of the state on government land. UP has the seventh-largest installed rooftop solar power generation capacity in India. The state government announced a subsidy of Rs 15,000 per kW for the development of rooftop solar projects which will be provided to residential consumers. The state government has set a target of 10,700 MW for solar power, including 4,300 MW from rooftop solar projects, by 2022. UP’s total installed solar power capacity was 1,095 MW in February with solar rooftop capacity of 146MW.

  • State subsidy Amount – Rs. 15,000-20,000 upto 10 kW
  • Central subsidy Amount – 40% for the first 3kW and 20% on remaining 7kW
  • Size of the Rooftop Solar System – Up to 10kW
  • Price for the customer -Rs. 7,800 per kW
  • Sector – Residential rooftop solar system
  • Online Application – Yes
  • Documents – Proof of identity, address proof, photo, Aadhar card, Bank details, electricity bill, site photographs, technical specification details, etc.

For group housing society projects, with a capacity between 10 kW – 100 kW, the center will provide a subsidy of 40% for the first 3 kW, 20% on the balance. The residential sector may install RTS plant above 10 kW but the Central subsidy will be applicable up to 10kW only.

Subsidy Process consists of two steps –

Step 1: Submit Application for Solar Connection, there are two way to submit application – Online (https://upnedasolarrooftopportal.com/Apply-Online) & Offline. Some states have developed an online platform to get solar connection, but in some states are still working on window work.

Step 2: Contact to the Power Distribution Company (DISCOM), if you are the resistance of that State.

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